Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Greek Words Used to Name Dinosaurs

The Greek Words Used to Name Dinosaurs If it sometimes seems as if the names of dinosaurs and prehistoric animals come from another language, well, theres a simple explanation: the names of dinosaurs and prehistoric animals really do come from another language. Traditionally, paleontologists the world over use Greek to christen new species and genera - not only of dinosaurs, but also of birds, mammals, and even microbes. Partly this is a matter of convention, but partly its rooted in common sense: classical Greek and Latin have been the shared languages of scholars and scientists for hundreds of years. (Lately, though, there has been a trend for using non-Greek roots to name dinosaurs and prehistoric animals; hence sibilant beasts like Suuwassea and Thililua.) But enough about all that: what good does this information do you if you have to decode a mouthful of a name like Micropachycephalosaurus? The following is a list of the most common Greek words used in dinosaur names, along with their English equivalents. If you want to have some fun, try assembling your own fictional dinosaur from the ingredients below (heres a nonsense example to get you started: Tristyracocephalogallus, or the extremely rare three-headed spiky chicken.) Numbers Mono OneDi TwoTri ThreeTetra FourPenta Five Body Parts Brachio ArmCephalo HeadCerato HornCheirus HandColepio KnuckleDactyl FingerDerma SkinDon, dont ToothGnathus JawLopho CrestNychus ClawOphthalmo EyeOps FacePhysis FacePtero WingPteryx FeatherRhampho BeakRhino NoseRhyncho SnoutTholus DomeTrachelo Neck Animal Types Anato DuckAvis BirdCetio WhaleCyno DogDraco DragonGallus ChickenHippus HorseIchthyo FishMus MouseOrnitho, Ornis BirdSaurus LizardStruthio OstrichSuchus CrocodileTaurus Bull Size and Shape Baro HeavyBrachy ShortMacro BigMegalo HugeMicro SmallMorpho ShapedNano TinyNodo KnobbedPlaco, Platy FlatSphaero RoundTitano GiantPachy ThickSteno NarrowStyraco Spiked Behavior Archo RulingCarno Meat-eatingDeino, Dino TerribleDromeus RunnerGracili GracefulLestes RobberMimus MimicRaptor Hunter, ThiefRex KingTyranno TyrantVeloci Fast Times, Places, and Assorted Features Antarcto AntarcticArchaeo AncientAustro SouthernChasmo CleftCoelo HollowCrypto HiddenEo DawnEu Original, FirstHetero DifferentHydro WaterLago LakeMio MioceneNycto NightOvi EggPara Near, AlmostPelta ShieldPlio PliocenePro, Proto BeforeSarco FleshStego RoofThalasso Ocean

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Health Planning and Regulations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Health Planning and Regulations - Essay Example This paper aims at discussing United Health Group Company profiled in America’s Health Insurance plan, discussing its program and opinion on how it will improve the education of the people it is targeting. The America Health Insurance plan has more than 1200 companies which sells health insurance to more that 250 million of Americans. One of the companies profiled in the Insurance Plan is United Health Group Company. This institution plays a great role in advocating health literacy to Americans, because, they are responsible for making it difficult or easier for people to use and find health services and information. It provides current health information, which is important for most Americans to make decisions on their health. Health Literacy can affect both people with education skills or not. It is a challenge to many individuals, like when they are not aware of medical terms and how their bodies function. Additionally, sometimes they are forced to interpret risks or numbers in order to make decisions based on their health, or when they are diagnosed with scary illness. Some individuals have complex conditions, which require complicated self-care. According to, Health (23-36) lack of health literacy affects adults in all ethnic and racial groups. Both uninsured and insured adults have low literacy and health skills. Additionally, both college graduates and high school graduates can have limited literacy. United Health Group Company program helps both unschooled and schooled understand and acquire health information. The company’s program consists of health education campaigns that are designed to help the Americans and their families understand group laws and health benefits which govern them, especially when they are experiencing changes in the works, childbirth, retirement, job loss, work situations and marriages. It helps in educating them on some of the benefits of health coverage

Monday, February 10, 2020

Buying Decision Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Buying Decision Assignment - Essay Example rchase the laptop was also influenced by the social needs such as engaging with my friends and relatives through social sites including tweeter and face book. Based on my interest to understand the culture of other people, the laptop could assist me to research on ethnicity of other people including their languages and beliefs. Before I made my purchase, I had first to compare the prices in various shops as well as the best brand that could meet my needs. Additionally, a number of customers were still looking for the same laptop during the early morning hours. The major factors influenced my purchase decision were efficiency, dependability, motivation and learning. As a new technology that is adopted my individuals and organizations, I realized that the laptop would assist me in storing information, providing solutions through the use of software, give me motivation during my research as well as make learning process easier. The purchase was a high involvement decision. In most cases, consumers go for personal computers rather than laptops due to the high prices of the laptops. Additionally, laptops have a high risk of getting a fault especially if improperly handled. As compared to my expectations after purchase, I realized that I had to extensively study most of the applications that were in the laptop as well as add more software into it in order to meet all my needs. One of the key concepts that I have learned from this assignment is that consumers are guided by various factors during their purchasing process (Kerin 31). These include economic needs, psychological variables, social needs, culture, and reasons for

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Business Ethics - Discrimination Essay Example for Free

Business Ethics Discrimination Essay Discrimination is defined as distinguishing something from something else (i. e. don’t hire him because he has no experience). Unjustified discrimination is distinguishing something from something else on a basis that is not justified (i. e. don’t hire him because he is black). The term discrimination commonly replaces the term unjustified discrimination in business, philosophy, psychology and day-to-day community life. In a just and fair society, such as we Canadians aspire to, a job applicant’s race, ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age, orientation, mental ability, or physical condition should not disadvantage them in career choices or job competitions. If a short Asian female firefighter can do the job, she should get the job. Conversely she should not expect to receive concessions that are not available to all; that is in effect also discrimination. Unfortunately, discrimination often arises in business in regards to hiring, job placement, wage, and promotion. Affirmative Action Ideally, discrimination should be of no concern at all; everyone should have an equal opportunity to anything. In a perfect world a hiring manager would not have to think thoughts such as, â€Å"They are disabled, they are women, they are aboriginal,† and would only think, â€Å"This person will be perfect for the job because†¦. † Unfortunately this may never completely happen. For example if a person in a wheelchair applies to be a stock person at Costco and another person who is not in a wheelchair applies for the same position the manager will be debating, â€Å"Should I hire the person who cannot walk because I want to be socially responsible? Or should I hire the person who can walk, who will probably do a better job and who I won’t have to make special accommodations for? † Another example is a man and a woman who are applying to be a nurse on the obstetrics ward; they have both just graduated and have exactly the same experience. If only one position is available who is more likely to be hired? Affirmative action programs often come into place to encourage equal opportunity. Affirmative action refers to policies or rograms that take factors such as; age, sex, race, color or religion and give preferential treatment to people that belong to an identifiable disadvantaged group, or outgroup. Cons Reverse discrimination occurs when preferential treatment is given to one person and the other is left out. For example if a woman is hired to work in an oil patch just because she is a woman and man is not hired (perhaps only because of quota requirements), he will experience reverse discrimination. This may in fact v iolate a province’s human rights code. Some would also argue that it is wrong to place at a disadvantage a current day job applicant in order to attempt to compensate for historical wrong treatment of certain categories of job applicants. Merit may not exist if affirmative action is in place. A situation could arise where an applicant may deserve a job more because he or she has more education and more experience than the hired applicant who is disabled, if the hiring was done only in the interest of a representative workplace. May condescend or offend outgroups because the people belonging to that group don’t believe they need preferential treatment in order to succeed. Affirmative action creates a perception that all racial minorities or physically disabled persons have low self image, poor job marketing skills, missed opportunities, and are in need government regulated assistance. Efficiency may be compromised if a company is forced to hirer a proportionally representative workforce. Instead of hiring the best fitting candidate, companies would be forced to seek out a visible minority or a disabled candidate. This simply is not good business practice. A company should be free to hire the best candidate. Morale and workplace cooperation may be negatively impacted by a person being hired because of affirmative action policies which clearly give special considerations not available to all. The outgroup may develop a sense of entitlement that is not supported by the majority of the workers. Affirmative action may cause a widening of the gap (and an affirmation of bigotry) instead of a diverse and inclusive work force. For example, a white man at a steel factory may think that he got his job because he is qualified for it while being angry that the Asian man only got hired because there were no other Asians working in the plant and the hiring manager did not want to be discriminating. Pros Assistance in obtaining a desired job may be necessary for members of an identifiable disadvantaged group, or outgroup, since discrimination may make it difficult to establish a career. For example, men can be excellent nurses, but if a female hiring officer doesn’t understand or embrace the benefits of diversity, the obstetrics ward would have all female nurses. Another example might be a hair dressing trainee who is in a wheelchair; this applicant may have more obstacles to overcome and more convincing to do with a prospective employer. It is not fair, or just, that these applicants would have to be much better that the â€Å"normal† kind of applicant in order to be desirable to the employer. This â€Å"assistance† is given in affirmative action plans such as requiring employers to choose the disadvantaged applicant when all other skills are equal. Affirmative action makes working in different areas more desirable. Ex, Okanagan College has free introductory welding courses for women only. If colleges did not have these affirmative action programs there would probably be less female welders. This creates an incentive for a member of an outgroup to step forward and be part of the creation of workplace diversity. Affirmative action ensures justice for those who have historically been oppressed. Although hopefully not in Canada, there may still be a stigma attached to those whose ancestors were slaves, lower class, or aboriginal and thus seen as lesser that those with good career jobs. Some people may believe that affirmative action is necessary to change the attitudes of society by mandating a diverse work force. Canada cannot ignore the fact that a few generations ago a person with mental challenges or physical disabilities would not have been offered a position if there was a reasonable candidate who was considered â€Å"normal. † Affirmative action envisions a just work place where everyone is normal because the new normal is diverse and inclusive. Affirmative action encourages a representative work force. If 2% of the community’s population is visually impaired, then in a company of 100 employees, there should be a least two people who have some kind of sight impairment. In Canada, 3% of the population is aboriginal; therefore, there should be three members of a First Nation employed at the above company. A disabled person aged 25 to 44 accounts for 8% of the population. Statistically speaking, the above company, if it were in British Columbia, should have 27 employees who are recent immigrants. With roughly 60% of Canada’s population being Caucasian, all the numbers above would create a representative work force. It could be described as a diverse, dynamic, and exciting place to work; but does it exist? By requiring the inclusion of a representative work force affirmative action will in the long term change attitudes and encourage diversity. Thesis Affirmative action programs are still necessary to ensure equal opportunities in the work place and to encourage diversity, which over time will extinguish discrimination and contribute to a just, fair, and tolerant society. History I believe discrimination stems from history. If a young person learned from parents, schools, or media that women are not good trade workers, they will continue this discrimination for generations. This is what happens in all forms of discrimination because discrimination is learned. Discrimination can be reduced in a society with the influence of laws, education, and incentives. Affirmative action mandates exposure, which with encouragement by supportive government and ethical businesses will result in workplace diversity, and that over time will influence the thinking of society as a whole. Further Discussion: Continue Affirmative Action Dimock and Tucker thoroughly discussed their views on affirmative action policies about how such policies cause problems for employment equity in Canada. Dimock and Tucker did not discuss why such policies may still be necessary and did not thoroughly discuss a solution to discrimination. Their conclusion, while pointing out that affirmative action programs have not met intended goals, does not offer concrete solutions other than education. I disagree that the young should be the only target to ensure against discrimination. Youth can be racist, sexist, and exclusive. That’s why our society has a large problem with bullying. If discrimination is a learned trait, then the youth are learning it from above, and that is precisely the target of affirmative action. I believe affirmative action should still be used to some extent in order to encourage diversification. I think a combination of education and the experience of exposure is more useful that a single target group (such as educating the young). If groups (young, school aged, post secondary, and the work force) are created with diverse and representative participants, the likelihood of all groups beginning to like each other because of repeated exposure is much higher then if they remain separated. Well informed members of society who have personal experience with diversity are the least discriminating for several reasons: †¢They have been educated not be discriminating (from classes like this). †¢They have been put together in groups with all different types of people, and †¢They have become comfortable with that diversity. The result is that they have learned to be less discriminating than their peers or previous generation. For example, a white 18 year old’s great grandparents may have been what is now considered racist toward black people. In the grandparent’s time racism, even segregation, was thought of as perfectly normal, and those views were passed down generation to generation. However, through education and exposure racism was slowly extinguished until we have a grade 12 student who welcomes a new immigrant from Zambia. Instead of being completely racist like his great grandparents the 18 year old now only believes the stereotype that all black people like rap music which he hates. The next generation will (hopefully) not even notice that a black person is in the group. If affirmative action continues it will help the top (the existing generation of employers) meet the bottom (the well informed and accepting job applicant) and the result will be a tolerant, inclusive, and diverse work place. The attitudes of the work place will in time influence society as a whole. Conclusion I was lucky enough to learn about discrimination in both psychology and philosophy class in the same week. Although solutions are not offered in this paper, I believe discrimination can be eliminated through education and diversification. If it were normal to have a representative and diverse â€Å"melting pot† of opportunities and experiences, there would be no need to practice discrimination. Diversification is good. It makes a community tolerant and compassionate; it makes a secure and exciting place to live. Including all groups in all employment opportunities will ultimately create a better society – the melting pot that Canada so prides its identity in. Affirmative action plans ensure that the work place will contribute to this pride.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Character of Falstaff in Shakespeares Henry IV, Part I Essay

The Character of Falstaff in Henry IV, Part I      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shakespeare's genius in character and plot development is exemplified in two of his most complex history plays, Richard II and Henry IV, Part I. With these sequential plays, Shakespeare vividly develops characters and sets up complicated plots by juxtapositioning people with others. Specifically, he first creates a binary opposition between Richard and Bolingbrook in Richard II, and then, recalls the plot and carries out an almost mirror image character contrast with Hal and Hotspur in Henry IV, Part I. However, in typical Shakespeare fashion, the seemingly mirror-image binaries of Richard/Bolingbrook and Hal/Hotspur break down with Shakespeare's character complexity.    A major reason why these character parallels do not perfectly hold up is because of the marvelous character of Falstaff. Absent from Richard II, Falstaff is introduced in Henry IV to create intricacy and ambiguity regarding likenesses among these characters. Falstaff significantly complicates the Hotspur-is-to-Bolingbrook-as-Hal-is-to-Richard II assumption because Falstaff has so much in common with the King. Therefore, as opposed to Hotspur's becoming the Bolingbrook persona, it is the drunken and disorderly Falstaff who becomes the character most parallel to the King. However, the King associates himself with Hotspur, who, as his name suggests, is a relentless warrior. The King puts forth a sense that Hotspur will act as Bolingbrook did in Richard II, by challenging the Prince's right to the throne; he feels that Bolingbrook's rivalry with Richard is reflected in Hotspur's position as Hal's challenger.    In the first scene of Henry IV, Part I, King Henry immediately ... ...tspur seems unfitting. Adding complexity to characterization through his comical action, Falstaff is a crucial character in Henry IV, Part I, and it is through the character of Falstaff that we see the parallel between Hotspur and Bolingbrook breaks down.    Works Cited and Consulted Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. H.C. Robinson's Memoranda Henry IV, Signet Classic, pp. 236-237. Goldman, Michael. Shakespeare and the Energies of Drama Henry IV, Signet Classic, pp. 260-261. Johnson, Samuel. The Plays of William Shakespeare Henry IV, Signet Classic, pp.234- 235. Kahn, Coppelia. Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare Henry IV, Signet Classic, pp.262-266. Shakespeare, William. Henry IV, Part I, ed. M.A. Shaaber, Penguin Books (NY: 1985). Wilson, John Dover. The Fortunes of Falstaff Henry IV, Signet Classic, pp.238-243.   

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

More so than any other issue facing us we must all start to reduce our ecological footprint

Yes, we must start to reduce our ecological footprint as developement of the world over the past 20 years has proven to be unsustainable. Meaning that we are actually living beyond our means e. g. A quarter of all fish stocks are overharvested, Humans now use between 40% and 50% of all available freshwater running off the land and deforestation increase risks of various deadly diseases such as malaria and cholera. Our way of life is placing an increasing burden on the planet and this can certainly not be sustained. To be sustainable, nature's resources must only be used at a rate which they can be replenished naturally. Scientific evidence shows now that humanity is living in n unsustainable way. Humans are consuming the Earth's limited natural resources more rapidly than they are being replaced by nature. Now a human effort to keep human use of natural resources within the sustainable development aspect of the Earth's finite resource limits is now an issue of huge importance to the present and future of humanity. â€Å"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. † As our world population increases rapidly our use of natural resources cannot go on forever and unless we start to make progress with reconciling these contradictions everybody, where ever they are will face a much less certain and secure lifestyle to the lifestyle we live in today. No, we don't have to reduce our ecological footprint as the world we live in right now is suffering from much worse issues presently and so in dealing with the issue of the footprint brings alot of limitations. The term ecological foot print also lacks a temporal dimension. For example, safe custody, monitoring and storage of high level nuclear waste will tie up people, corporations and land for over 100,000 years. For it to be successful will require political will, social stability and unwavering purpose through those millennia. This, too, will impose its load on the planet, both directly and in terms of the opportunity cost. The â€Å"given population† in the definition above needs to be specified: is it the human population? The population of all animals? The population of all life? In my personal opinion, I agree with the concept of reducing our ecological footprint as it is seriously harmful to the world both presently and for future generations. Although I realise that there is a for and against argument for this cause, I find myself leaning more towards the Yes side of the argument because I believe we should respect this Earth not destroy it, as it is the only one we've got. The earth cannot be replaced and neither can all the natural resources we use up or destroy so rapidly without a moments thought to both the consequences and meaning.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Speech on Euthanasia Essay - 1161 Words

Speech on Euthanasia I stand before you today in confrontation. I stand before you today equal to any man. I stand before you today with a challenge! I challenge any man who deems, their morals, their ethics, their beliefs, their conscience enough to find themselves fit to judge others. I challenge any man who deems himself fit to pass judgement upon another’s life. I challenge any man who believes they can play god. I challenge any man who believes in euthanasia. How can you believe in something you cannot justify? There is no justification in euthanasia so how can it even be considered to be preformed, how could anyone ever justify the taking of another’s life. A mercy killing is the†¦show more content†¦What does one do with such an old machine? It is thrown on the scrap heap. What does one do with a lame horse, with such an unproductive cow? No, I do not want to continue the comparison to the end--however fearful the justification for it and the symbolic force of it are. We are not dealing with machines, horses and cows whose only function is to serve mankind, to produce goods for man. One may smash them; one may slaughter them as soon as they no longer fulfil this function. No, we are dealing with human beings, our fellow human beings, our brothers and sisters. With poor people, sick people, if you like unproductive people. When does a life become worthless, the happiest man in the world is not necessarily the most productive, happiness and joy and love of life can remain when the ability to be productive has gone, true happiness lies within. Yet the manic depressants who have a perfect body, who are filled with hate, those who make life a desolate landscape of dejected feelings, those who turn the gift of life into a hell of misery, do they deserve life more than the terminally ill. True is it not that it is the people themselves that wish to die, that wish to be aided in suicide, to escape life to the sweet release of death. True it is those with the terminal illness that that make the sole decision upon there life, but whatShow MoreRelatedEuthanasia Speech Essay694 Words   |  3 PagesSpeech Imagine if a close relative of yours was dying of lung cancer. Each breath they took was agonizing. No medicine or drug could lessen their pain. Their life had become a torture. They ask you to end their torment. What would you do? If you helped to hasten their death, you would most likely go to prison for murder. What this relative has asked you to do is to commit Euthanasia. Websters Encyclopedia describes Euthanasia as the practice of hastening or causing the death of a personRead MorePersuasive Speech On Euthanasia1012 Words   |  5 Pagesout. Would you die slowly, experiencing inhuman suffer knowing that you can never escape the inevitable, living in fear of tomorrow, or would you choose to die a quick, painless and dignified death. And this choice introduces me to my speech topic – why should euthanasia be legalized? But firstly, we must ask ourselves: What makes us ‘human’? Our dignity. But what defines dignity? It is the ability to determine our destiny as individuals and is facilitated by our ability to think for ourselves. ImagineRead MorePersuasive Speech: Euthanasia2634 Words   |  11 PagesSPEECH OUTLINE (Persuasive Speech) Title : Euthanasia: To live and let die.   Specific purpose : To persuade my audience that euthanasia should be legalized in Malaysia. Central idea : Euthanasia is about giving people the right to choose how they want to live and die, saves money in medical bills, and it also stops the person from having a bad quality of life. INTRODUCTION Attention getter : Imagine yourself being unable to walkRead MoreFirst Affirmative Constructive Speech : Euthanasia1177 Words   |  5 PagesFirst Affirmative Constructive Speech: Euthanasia A lady named Brittany Maynard who was twenty-nine years old had stage 4 of Glioblastoma Multiform, which is brain cancer. She had taken a lethal medication, given to her by her doctors in Portland, Oregon. On November 1, 2014 she had chosen to end her life by Euthanasia. surrounded by family and friends, she died peacefully in her bedroom, with her loved ones by her side. she had thought out her choice well enough to go through with it. she was anRead MoreArgumentative Speech Outline : Legalization Of Euthanasia1379 Words   |  6 PagesArgumentative Speech Outline: Legalization of Euthanasia Lexie Phongthai-Yochum Topic: Legalizing Euthanasia General Purpose: To argue Specific Purpose: To argue that euthanasia should be made available for terminal patients to end their suffering. Thesis Statement: Euthanasia should be made legal for terminal patients to end their suffering because 1) people should have the right to choose, 2) it helps save lives through organ donation, and 3) it can be regulated. Introduction According toRead MoreEuthanisa Outline1008 Words   |  5 PagesSAMPLE PERSUASIVE OUTLINE – AVERAGE Student Y February 17, 2005 Section AY Topic: Euthanasia Goal: To persuade the audience that physician-assisted suicide, which is a subset category of euthanasia, should be a legal option. Thesis: All terminally ill patients or individuals in chronic severe pain should have the option of a peaceful and quick death to minimize suffering. Introduction A. Attention Gaining Device: On November 23, 2000 my mother passed away. She had terminal ovarian cancerRead MoreIs there a morally important difference between killing someone and letting someone die?697 Words   |  3 Pagesactive and passive euthanasia and voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. Active euthanasia, sometimes referred to as ‘positive’ euthanasia, involves a deliberate act, such as lethal injection, that brings about death to a person. On the other hand, passive or ‘negative’ euthanasia is conventionally said to be the omission of an act. For example, when a doctor decides against administering life prolonging drugs or opts to turn off a life support machine, it is considered passive euthanasia. However, theseRead MoreEuthanasia Essay - The Legalization Of Euthanasia803 Words   |  4 PagesLegalization of Euthanasia [Speech Transcript] [Introduction] What is euthanasia? Euthanasia (derived from the Greek word euthanatos: eu- for good; thanatos for death) is the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve intractable suffering. Intractable: adj. describes high complexity, which makes it difficult to change, manipulate, or resolve an issue. In this context, intractable suffering refers to terminal illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, or Ebola. TypesRead MoreDo You Think That the Right to Life Entails a Right to Die Under Certain Circumstances? Should the Law Be Changed to Grant a Universal Right to Voluntary Euthanasia?1000 Words   |  4 Pagesbe changed to grant a universal right to voluntary euthanasia?†. In this essay, I am going to give reasons using ethical theories to justify these questions. Euthanasia Euthanasia is the act of a physician or other third party ending a patients life in response to severe pain and suffering. Euthanasia can be classified into three types. They are voluntary euthanasia, non-voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia. Involuntary euthanasia is the action that takes the patient’s life withoutRead MoreDo You Think That the Right to Life Entails a Right to Die Under Certain Circumstances? Should the Law Be Changed to Grant a Universal Right to Voluntary Euthanasia?1008 Words   |  5 Pageslaws be changed to grant a universal right to voluntary euthanasia?†. In this essay, I am going to give reasons using ethical theories to justify these questions. Euthanasia Euthanasia is the act of a physician or other third party ending a patients life in response to severe pain and suffering. Euthanasia can be classified into three types. They are voluntary euthanasia, non-voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia. Involuntary euthanasia is the action that takes the patient’s life without